"The Dean of American Musical Theatre"
INTERVIEWED BY FORREST PATTEN
When it comes to success on Broadway and the musical theatre,
Paul Gemignani has reached the pinnacle. Having been associated
with some of the greatest musical productions in the last
30-plus years, he shows no signs of slowing down. On the
contrary, Paul continues to accept new challenges in promoting
the songs and music of the theatre by performing in a wide
variety of concert venues. Through concerts, ballet, opera,
recordings, and videos, he is helping new audiences to embrace
and appreciate the traditions and wealth of this material.
Paul has worked with just about every big name in the business
and is greatly respected by his peers. Producers consider
him "the dean of the industry." In 2001, he was
presented with a special Tony Award for Lifetime Achievement
in the American Theater. As an artist, he is able to shape
a performance by totally communicating with his musicians
and the performers on stage. By completely memorizing the
conductors score, Paul is free to involve himself
as "a third actor" in the show.
He has strong opinions and doesnt mince words. His
success is not only based on pure talent, but because hes
always known what hes wanted to do and stayed the
course. One can sense that Paul loves what he does and a
dedication for pushing the envelope and going for the best
On a recent trip to the west coast, Paul and I had a chance
to talk about a number of topics. In this exclusive interview
for Journal Into Melody, he takes us behind the scenes
and comments on a number of issues facing the American musical
FORREST PATTEN: Paul, you were born and raised in the San
Francisco bay area. You graduated from San Francisco State
University with a music degree and started out as a percussionist.
How did that lead you to New York and a career as a musical
PAUL GEMIGNANI: I went there from a job I was doing in
Minneapolis. I thought that since I was that close (to New
York), I might as well go. I went to see a performance of
Cabaret and was bowled over by it. I happened to
have an actor friend in it. I went backstage after and she
introduced me to Hal Hastings, the musical director at that
time. I gave him my resume and started with that company
(which was run by Hal Prince). I played (drums) for about
six or seven months on the road with Cabaret and
was then called back to New York (by the same musical director)
to play in the Broadway production of Zorba. I then
took that show on the road as conductor with John Raitt
and Chita Rivera and that was the beginning.
FP: Did you intend to get into this field when you left
for New York?
PG: I never intended to get into the musical theatre. I
wanted to go into opera or ballet as a conductor. I was
so impressed by the creative opportunities in the theatre
that I decided to try that. I havent left yet!
FP: Today you are considered the "conductor of choice"
for the Broadway stage. When you first arrived in New York,
was it hard to get established and work your way up?
PG: No, it wasnt for me only because it was very
clear-cut. I told them what I wanted to do. I only played
Cabaret on the road, Zorba in New York, and
then I went back to do Follies which was a Stephen
Sondheim piece. I did Follies in New York and took
it over as a conductor in the middle of its run. After that,
I never had to play drums again.
FP: So Follies was the vehicle that essentially
established you as a conductor.
PG: That and a Sondheim "benefit" (that was recorded)
for the AMDA. Everybody in show business was in the theatre,
so it was like a big free audition for me. Thats how
it pretty much started.
FP: Youve had a very long and successful association
with Stephen Sondheim. How did that relationship get started?
PG: That started with Follies. We work very well
together. Hes a wonderful collaborator. We just hit
it off. Hes called me for every show so I guess I
must have done something right (although I dont know
what that is!).
FP: What a history to have been associated with so many
top shows in the last 20 to 30 years!
PG: Ive been lucky. Out of 40 shows, only one was
a revival. Everything else was a brand new production. It
gives you an incredible background in how to do these things
because doing a brand new show is three times harder than
doing something that is already there.
FP: Who are your own personal favourite Broadway composers?
PG: Well, Sondheim certainly. Also Jule Styne and Cy Coleman.
It stops there.
FP: In San Francisco, we recently saw the revival of Cole
Porters Kiss Me Kate (in which you were associated).
The house was packed. With that in mind, are the older,
more established shows (i.e. productions by Rodgers and
Hammerstein, Lerner and Lowe, Jerome Kern, or Cole Porter)
apt to bring in larger audiences than some of the newer
PG: I think its two-fold. I dont think a lot
of the new musicals have the shelf life like the Porter,
Gershwin, or Rodgers material. The other thing is that there
is an entire new audience who has never seen a live production
of Oklahoma, for example. I dont think that
the older shows necessarily do better than the newer ones.
If the new production is good, it will make it. One example
is Mamma Mia. Its not one of my favourites,
but it is new and seems to have caught the publics
eye. I believe that the wealth of material in the musical
theatre needs to be revived, not so much by Broadway (although
thats a good place), but by opera companies. Thats
happening a little bit. Otherwise that whole thing is lost.
Its sort of like jazz. Look how long it took everybody
to get together with jazz in this country. Now its
an established thing, but when I was growing up it wasnt.
Some people knew about it or thought jazz meant Dean Martin
singing. Since theres a new generation who will see
these things, I think its important that we preserve
them because its an important American art-form. However
we choose to preserve them (whether on Broadway or in the
opera house), we need to take responsibility.
FP: Compare Andrew Lloyd Webber with Stephen Sondheim.
PG: I think that Lloyd Webber has done some good things
for the musical. I consider Jesus Christ Superstar
to be his best score. The rest have not been based around
the strongest of material. Take Phantom Of The Opera,
for example. Its more production-oriented, like a
Hal Prince show. I just did a recording with Renee Flemming
and Bryn Terfel. We had to include two Lloyd Webber songs
because of the record companys perception of what
sells. In all fairness to Andrew, I do think that Jesus
Christ Superstar is a wonderful score for the theatre.
Phantom and Evita were not as good scores as
that, but were developed by production values. Everybody
has their place.
FP: You mention the concept of production values. With
the emphasis on staging and visual elements, is the music
actually getting lost in the shuffle?
PG: There are two factors, I believe. Writers, composers
and authors are in a bad place because they want their work
to be performed. In some ways (to be crude), they dont
care how its done. They just want it done. The one
person that could fight for something (and get away with
it) is the composer. They wont. None of them will.
The last one I knew who would fight like that was Jule Styne.
It originally cost $750,000 to do a show like Follies.
If we were to do the same show today, it would cost something
like $14,000,000. Its just astronomically expensive
to work in the commercial theatre and to get your work done.
And its run now by a bunch of businessmen and corporations.
Theyre not the David Merricks who, as tough as he
was, was a showman. That makes it hard. I do think production
values have taken over and have over-shadowed what is necessary.
Has the music suffered? It didnt in Kiss Me Kate.
I dont think that it has in others. In some places
I think it has. The more they take the live orchestra and
reduce it in size to save money, the less important music
becomes. Someone has to fight, and the best person to do
that is the composer. I have a thing about myself where
Ill not take a show where the orchestra is off-stage.
Ill never do Cats, for example, where the musicians
are spread out somewhere in a building and you have to watch
them on television monitors. Thats not the art-form.
Its the same way in using click tracks or not having
the whole orchestra present when you make a record. Using
technology for the wrong reason is garbage. Sound enhancement
in the theatre is something else. Im constantly fighting
for natural sound using the pure acoustics of the venue.
When we toured with Jerome Robbins Broadway,
we used only drapes and a few props. Nobody said a word.
It was a great show and we didnt need all of that
production stuff. Its still true as far as Im
FP: Ive often felt that it was Andrew Lloyd Webber
who started the trend of using more synthesizers in his
shows while eliminating the need for real players.
PG: He did use synthesizers, but he didnt reduce
the number of players. What he used in Evita, for
instance, was a Moog synthesizer for the lower tones. That
was the only synthesizer in the show. He came from rock
and roll and brought along some of the technology. He used
a real piano and two real guitars. Lloyd Webber knows about
synthesizers and how to use them. I think whats happened
is in an effort to save money, producers have forced the
technology of synthesizers. Ive had several shows
where Ive had synthesizers in the pit. Passions
was one. We had two, in fact, but not replacing instruments.
When we were at the Plymouth (theatre), we could only fit
15 players in the pit. Two were on keyboards. They happened
to be synthesizers because we couldnt get a grand
piano in there. From a recorded sample, you try to make
it sound like the real thing. We just went through a union
thing in New York about "virtual orchestras."
Nobody is going to accept that
..the public or anybody
else. The sad part about it is that the producers know very
little about what we do, what should be, and how little
pride they have in presenting what the sound should be in
a live musical. I dont think that the use of the synthesizer
with the orchestra is bad as long as its used correctly.
Ill give you an example. On Kiss Me Kate, John
Sebesky (whom I have the greatest respect for as an orchestrator)
and I decided to push the style button on that show. When
we were in an Elizabethan period, he would orchestrate using
little drums and recorders. For the 1940s sections,
wed play real swing. This was a lot different from
the 1950s when most musicals tended to sound the same
and have a "Broadway sound." Because the producer
would only allow us 15 players, we took the Kurzweil synthesizer
and got a great Baldwin piano, and then used the rest of
the keyboard for various percussion effects that we couldnt
fit into the pit.
FP: You mentioned the recent strike with New York musicians.
Were you satisfied with how that was resolved?
PG: No. When it comes to dictating the number of musicians
for a given show, producers are saving, maybe, $10,000 a
week. And for a major Broadway musical (with its multi-million
dollar price tag), this is considered "chump change."
After all, its called the Broadway musical.
A blind man cant come to a performance and see just
the set or the staging. Im going to guess that shows
like Mamma Mia and Phantom bring in about
$400,000 a week. To penny-pinch and argue about minimums
is false. The union for stagehands will look at a show and
tell you how many of their members need to be involved and
thats it. If we (the members of the musicians
union) were under the same system as the stagehands, producers
would be forced to accept our input. For example, if I walk
into a show like Into The Woods and tell them that
I need 20 musicians, theyll turn around and tell me
that Im only getting 11. And I have to deal with it.
The stagehands dont have to deal with it. Somebody
tells them that they need 15 men and thats what they
get. So its not logical. I was fairly vocal about
how Im against this and I dont think that Im
very popular with the producers at the moment. Thats
OK; thats what unions are for. But I do think that
our union sold us down the river. I do think they pulled
out too early. We lost a lot of men when you add it up.
We went from 24 or 26 players (in the bigger theatres) down
to 18 or 19. And thats now the minimum. Youre
going to have to fight for every extra player, but youre
not going to get it. Its caving in on itself. This
has never been a business in New York that knew what they
had. It was always the artists and composers that used to
fight for stuff because they understood the medium. There
used to be a "Broadway" sound. Theres no
"Broadway" sound anymore because its too
diverse. I cant remember the last time I had an orchestra
of more than 15 players. And the average orchestra in New
York used to be 26. When we did A Little Night Music,
we had 26. The same for Evita, I believe. When we
did Crazy For You, it was 24 or 25. The average orchestra
in New York has gone down to 15 or 16. Im at the point
in my career where Ill probably do more Broadway shows,
but I will also do a lot of stuff in the opera house
necessarily opera, but these musicals, especially Sondheim.
Im going to London to do Sweeney Todd. That
will be followed by a concert version of Passions
with the Chicago Symphony this summer. Those kinds of things
will be more and more. Im going to gravitate to them
because its more the real thing as opposed to leading
a "pep band."
FP: Paul, once youve agreed to do a show, take us
through the process from the beginning steps through to
the opening night curtain.
PG: I make sure that the orchestrator is shown each number
in the show. He needs to talk to the choreographer, the
composer, and to me. That comes after about three weeks
of rehearsal. The first thing you do is audition for the
cast. You audition with the director, the choreographer,
and maybe, one producer, plus the casting director and myself.
Your job there is to make sure that the people youre
hiring can actually do the job. The next step is the rehearsal
where youre going to put all of these people together
and teach them the music. In my case, Im also responsible
for the vocal arrangements and the underscoring. Thats
not a prerequisite of a musical director; its something
I just do. Youre the composers right hand guy.
If the composers dead, youre still his right
hand guy. Youre protecting what you think the composer
meant when he wrote the score. In a case like Steve (Sondheim),
you can talk to him. In the case of someone like George
Gershwin or Cole Porter, you just hope that youre
smart enough to do what they wanted. Once youve completed
the usual four weeks of rehearsal (or up to six weeks if
its a brand new musical), you need to contract the
orchestra. I do this; lots of guys dont. They let
an outside contractor perform that function. I feel like
if Im going to say to you "do something"
or, if Im standing in front of you every night, I
need to be the one that asks you to come to work for me.
Ive always done that from the beginning. I hire my
own orchestra. I start thinking about that when I get the
score. Who would be good for each chair? I then give a list
to the guy who works with me (the orchestra contractor that
the union requires), we discuss it and make any additions
or deletions, and then he goes and hires the orchestra.
We then start a two-week period of technical rehearsals
where we start to go through the show very slowly with a
piano and maybe drums. Youve gone from the rehearsal
hall into the theatre. Theres a minimal set and the
lighting guy is there. During that period, I rehearse the
orchestra. This is where the cast gets to hear the score
for the very first time. Its one of the most exciting
times because everyone who has been working on the show
will hear the music beyond the piano and drums. The orchestrator
is also there. Then we do dress rehearsals with costumes,
staging, and the orchestra. Well maybe do three of
those. After that, we do a first preview. From then to the
opening (which is about a month), well rehearse during
the daytime (usually 1 to 5 in the afternoon) and then do
a preview each night (for about four or five weeks) and
then we open.
FP: How do you handle artistic temperament?
PG: Ive never had anybody walk out. But I think that
performers can get insecure. Most of that temperament is
insecurity. Elaine Stritch is a handful. Renee Flemming
is a handful, but for the right reasons. What you have to
do is to understand that and not push your ego up against
theirs. Youre there to facilitate them. Youre
there to make them look good. I find that once they understand
that, you dont get any temperament. Ive been
pretty lucky because Ive worked with everybody. I
cant think of anybody who has given me such a hard
time that I didnt know what to do. Thats not
what they really want to do. They want to be great. They
want to be good. Anytime you get temperament or craziness,
its something that theyre feeling insecure about.
If theres something wrong, youve got to find
out what that reason is. There have been some tough people
to work with, but Im not always that easy to work
with either! Were all there for the same reasons.
Youve just got to keep that straight in your mind.
FP: Lets talk about orchestrators.
PG: I have two who I think are brilliant: Jonathan Tunick
and Don Sebesky. There are other good ones, but for my personal
taste, I could be very happy with those two. There are many
who can do a good job, but only a very few are geniuses
at it. I just finished doing A Little Night Music.
When you hear the orchestrations that Jonathan did 25 years
ago, they sound as if they were done yesterday. Its
the same with the Gershwin library, especially the pieces
that George personally arranged.
FP: Your recent Decca recording UNDER THE STARS
featuring opera stars Renee Flemming and Bryn Terfel is
an example of a cross-over album. How do the opera megastars
feel about performing songs from musicals rather than arias
from grand opera?
PG: Renee and Bryn both love the musicals. Ive worked
with people like Samuel Ramey, Marilyn Horne, Thomas Hampson
and Jerry Hadley. They all love singing this material. Whether
they all can is another question. They need to give
the same mental work and understand the style. The hardest
part of my job is to get them to come from the style that
is mainly vowels and a different kind of singing to an art-form
that comes from the lyric first. In opera, its the
music first followed by the lyric. These two (Flemming and
Terfel) are brilliant at it. We walked into a studio, never
having heard a single note of orchestration, and had sort
of a slip-shod run-through of the material the day before
we started recording (so we could make suggestions and find
out what they were thinking). I think the concept of "cross-over"
is something that the record companies came up with. Its
music of the theatre, simply that. The whole idea of "cross-over"
puts a stigma on it. They invented the word and theyre
biting themselves on the foot for it. The record companies
are doing this because theyre struggling. Theyre
scratching at anything because theyre in big trouble.
For example, theyre putting a lot of weight on the
new Simon Rattle recording of the Beethoven Symphonies in
hopes that it will do something. The whole idea of having
12 versions of Mahlers Eighth Symphony in your record
collection is because there are 12 different artists performing
the work. Most people dont care about artists. Audiences
have not been developed along with the rest of the art-form.
Thats why Broadway right now is a theme park. Audiences
dont demand anything. I dont think 20 years
ago that a show like Mamma Mia could have stayed
open. Television has dulled everybodys brain. Theyll
accept anything thats put in front of them. It does
not help the artist in this country, or the world for that
matter. Im really proud of UNDER THE STARS. If
they want to call it "cross-over," then its
a premiere example of what it should be. Both artists are
invested in the material; they both understand the lyrics;
they both know who the characters are. Thats not always
true when these opera singers cross-over. To listen to Tom
Hampson (who sings great lieder songs) just walk through
"All The Things You Are" is not enough. That music
comes from a different place. I think its a good thing
that opera singers are singing everything because its
music of the theatre and it belongs with good voices. Most
of the stuff is intended for good voices. It just doesnt
FP: How do you feel about rock music and whats happening
in the commercial pop field today?
PG: I think that the kids have a good finger on the pulse
of things. I think this guy Eminem is cool and is doing
some good stuff. Theres so much garbage around it,
however. Rap is my least favourite. I just dont understand
why its worth anything. And the "monster"
or "gangsta" rap is very destructive. Its
wrong in every sense of the word. I have a 17-year old stepson.
I try to go back and remember what I was listening to at
his age. In the big picture, I think that the music industry
is as good as it ever was. There are many artists in it
and a good percentage will continue to emerge. Take somebody
like Diana Krall. The record companies are destroying her
at the moment (as they did Carmen MacRae). Shell pull
out of it, though. There are a lot of pop artists out there
that are worth it. I would like to see kids listening to
a variety of music. I did and my 23-year-old son does. Hes
in the theatre now and always listens to quite a spectrum.
Ive always done that as a musician to keep up. As
I said, I dont like rap, but I listen to it on the
radio in order to see what people are listening to. Its
like a bit of homework for me. I think its healthy
and, at the same time, hard to accept. People have no real
opinion artistically. Thats what guides everybody.
If everybody stood up and said "if I see one more commercial,
Im going to turn my cable in," there wouldnt
be anymore commercials on television. As consumers, we have
great powers that we never use. Ive seen it dwindle
in the theatre and in music. And the record companies wonder
why they have to focus most of their sales devices to teenagers
or to older people. For the middle group, theres nothing
for them to listen to. They wont promote a singer
like Mark Murphy, for example, whos been around for
as long as Ive been doing my thing. Hes a great
jazz singer. They dont re-issue Jack Jones greatest
material. They dont do anything for the middle ground
people. Kids will buy anything. Theyll go down and
buy a record because theyve heard of a particular
artist (just like we did when we were their age). The pop
music world is not catering to anybody except those who
are buying the records. Nobody is forcing them to do anything
else. Its the same audience participation problem.
FP: Who are some of your favourite artists? Who do you
listen to when youre away from the theatre and just
want to kick back?
PG: I listen to classical music. I listen to a lot of jazz.
I enjoy singers like Carmen MacRae, Sarah Vaughn, and Diana
Krall. I find myself going to the music store and instead
of coming out with 10 records, Ill have three. I dont
buy any real pop albums. Ill listen to the radio for
that. I definitely love Dave Grushin, especially his big
band stuff. One of my favourite film scores by him is The
Firm. Hes a great artist and I love his work.
Don Sebesky has a few albums out that I would take with
me. I love Mel Torme. There is no modern singer I can equate
that to. Thats the period Im stuck in terms
of that music. I like Beethoven and Eminem. I particularly
like George Soltis recording of Mahlers Ninth
Symphony. Theres Glenn Gould. I also like the recent
release of the complete symphonies of Shostokovich. You
notice that I havent mentioned any musicals!
FP: That brings me to my next question. Is there a particular
musical that you havent done yet that youd really
like to do?
PG: Porgy And Bess without a doubt. Theres
also a funny little musical I did back in college called
Leave It To Jane by Jerome Kern.
FP: Would you like to be involved with more film or broadcast
PG: Sure. I wont do a film score where I have to
listen to click-tracks or become too involved technically.
Its got to be the old way or Im not going to
do it. I did Reds. I did Kramer Vs. Kramer.
I did a bunch of travelogues which were great because you
look at the film, the guy shows you the scenes, you do the
music and theres a movement to it. Its how John
Williams and all of Europe do their scores. You would not
be able to go into an Italian or French studio and tell
the conductor to put on a headset because he was going to
have to follow what was being fed to him. Hed throw
the headset on the floor! So I wouldnt want to get
into the technical end of it at all. I dont care about
it. Its not making music for film. I think that film
music is as expressive as any music going if its done
correctly. It needs to be played to a scene while
youre feeling the emotion of what youre looking
at in that scene. Its free-form. Yes, on that level,
Id love to be able to do more films. Do I want to
do musicals on film? No. I have no interest in doing a film
like Chicago. Its piecemeal; its too
technical; it has nothing to do with anything. Even though
I havent seen the film, I know how that kind of show
is done. I wouldnt be interested in doing that kind
of thing. I didnt like the film Moulin Rouge.
Not because of what was done visually; I hated the choice
of music. It was a joke. I thought that it made Nicole Kidman
look moronic with the choices of music they put in there
and what she sang. The jump-cutting is a technique that
you either buy or you dont. In Chicago I can
see how it might work. Id rather work on a romantic
film or something like Mullholland Drive or The
Firm where the music becomes a character (as opposed
to a device to move the story along). In Reds, the
music moved the story along and had a romantic connection
to what was coming next. We just saw Tom Hanks film
The Road To Perdition. Id enjoy working on
a film like that. Im not against the tools. I just
dont want to be involved with them.
FP: In New York, there was a rallying of forces following
the events of 9/11. We heard how those in the theatre community
wanted to go on, even when the crowds were not there. What
were your thoughts?
PG: Our show Kiss Me Kate really started
that whole movement. Actually, I was in London (in a rehearsal
hall) when 9/11 hit. We were rehearsing the London production
of Kiss Me Kate when we came up for a break. The
doorman had a television set on where you saw the smoke
coming out from one of the towers. Because John F. Kennedy
Jr. had gone down in a plane not too long before that, the
first thing that came to my mind was that some pilot (who
had not done his homework) had crashed into the building.
And boom, the second plane hit. It was obvious then that
it was something else. The whole creative team was over
there, so they sent me back (on September 11) to New York
to conduct the Broadway show. They wanted somebody from
the creative team to be there in order to make the cast
feel more secure. The minute I got back, the closing notice
went up. The producers are businessmen, theyre not
artists. They didnt want to lose their shirts. We
went to them and said that wed give 50% of our salary
back for six weeks if they kept the show going. They agreed.
Suddenly, everybody jumped on the band wagon when they heard
what we did. That was one of the positive things that happened.
The people came back in about a week. We played to full
houses for the rest of the time we were open. Local people
came back because it gave them something to do. The city
was a mess. With the dust and the dirt, it was like being
in a volcano for at least a month. It was pretty scary actually
when you consider what happened in that city. The people
really rallied. So when the business started coming back,
the two producers of our show gave us all our money back.
The problem right now is tourism in New York. Its
not what it used to be and people are still not coming back
as of yet.
FP: Tell us about your next projects.
PG: Im going to London to do Sweeney Todd
at Covent Garden. In between now and then Ill be conducting
a West Side Story Suite and a new Richard Rodgers
compilation piece called Thou Swell (orchestrated
by Don Sebesky) for the New York City Ballet Company. Following
a vacation, it will be Alan Menkens A Christmas
Carol (that we do every year). After that, Ill
go to London for about ten weeks. At the beginning of the
year, were hopefully going to do Assassins
at the Roundabout. That hasnt been confirmed yet.
Around May, Im going to do Frogs with Nathan
Lane. Im looking forward to that.
FP: Paul, weve covered a lot of ground today. Any
final thoughts or comments?
PG: I hope that all the young musicians who want to be
professionals have the same opportunity and the same ability
to hold onto their dreams (as Ive been able to do.)
I hope that audiences will get tougher on what they accept
and what they dont accept so that the artist has a
platform in which to work from.
PAUL GEMIGNANI: A SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY
*Broadways Best (conducts the New York City Opera
*Broadway Extravaganza, Vol. 1: Symphonic Recollections
(conducts the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) (1987)
*Digital Trip Down Broadway (conducts the Royal Philharmonic
*Two Symphonic Pictures: Phantom Of The Opera / Jesus Christ
Superstar (conducts the Royal Philharmonic Pops) (1988)
CONDUCTS FOR THE FOLLOWING VOCAL ARTISTS
*Betty Buckley: Evening At Carnegie Hall (1996)
*Patti Cohenour: To An Isle In The Water (1998)
*Placido Domingo: Man Of La Mancha (1996)
*Renee Flemming & Bryn Terfel: Under The Stars (2003)
*Jerry Hadley: Standing Room Only (1992)
*Thomas Hampson: Leading Man (1996)
*Mandy Patinkin: Dress Casual (1990)
*John Raitt: Broadway Legend (1995)
*Stephen Sondheim: Send In The Clowns (The Ballads Of Stephen
ORIGINAL CAST / STUDIO CASTS / REVIVALS (Musical
Director and/or Conductor)
*Christmas Carol (1995)
*Crazy For You (1992)
*Follies: In Concert (1985)
*Frogs / Evening Primrose (2001)
*High Society (1999)
*Into The Woods (1988 & 2002)
*Kismet (1991 studio cast)
*Kiss Me Kate (2000 revival)
*Little Night Music (1998)
*On The Twentieth Century (1991)
*1776 (1997 revival)
*Sweeney Todd (1979)
*Sunday In The Park With George (1984)
COLLECTIONS / VARIOUS ARTISTS
*I Got Rhythm: The Music Of George Gershwin (1992)
*Lost In The Stars: The Music Of Kurt Weill (1985)
*Sondheim: A Celebration At Carnegie Hall (1993)
*Star Spangled Rhythm (Smithsonian) (1997)
*My Favourite Broadway: The Leading Ladies (1999)
*My Favourite Broadway: The Love Songs (2001)
*We Love New York (2002)
*Encores From Encores! (2003)
*Ultimate Broadway, Vol. 2 (2003)
ON VIDEO & DVD
*Follies: In Concert (New York) (1985)
*Under The Stars (with Renee Fleming & Bryn Terfel)
Id like to thank Paul Gemignani, his parents, Paul
and Marge Gemignani, and his sister, Marie Souza, for making
arrangements and offering the facilities to conduct this
The interview took place on April 22, 2003 in Danville,